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They declare that their supreme deity, or, more properly speaking, demon Tonacatecotle, whom we have just mentioned, who by another name was called Citinatonali, when it appeared good to him, breathed and begot Quetzalcoatle, not by connection with a woman, but by his breath alone, as we have observed above, when he sent his ambassador as they say to the virgin of Tula. They paint the Devil Tezcatlipoca opposite this woman, as if tempting her to sin; intending perhaps to signify by this, that all women who chanced to be born on the first sign (the Eagle) would be liable to temptation, since they believed that all who were born on that sign would be bad. They called them the festival of discord. Click to view this page. I cannot assign a different etymology for the name of Tlaloque, but can only say, that as the companion of the four winds or four seasons of the year, it signifies fine weather; and accordingly, although the serpent is an unlucky sign, when in this month Tlaloque was in the sign of Seven Serpents, they considered it fortunate for everything, but especially for marriages. He who was born on the ninth sign they believed would be unfortunate, because that sign was dedicated to sorcerers and necromancers, who transformed themselves into the shapes of various animals. Click to view this page. Click to view this page. The Codex Borgia is the most beautiful of the remaining preserved ancient Mexican hand painted manuscripts. The TALEN technique is used to lead an altered gene sequence back to the original DNA. 4. Collection of book illustrations from various sources selected by BibliOdyssey. This site uses cookies to improve your experience and to help show ads that are more relevant to your interests. He is here represented with his hands open and stretched towards the sun, to seize on any soul which might escape from him. This painting explains what we have mentioned above, that all those who committed adultery were stoned. He was one of the gods of the Tzapotecas (Zapotecs). Codex Fejéváry-Mayer They paint Tezcatlipoca with the feet of a man and of a cock, as they say his name bears allusion to this circumstance. The codices are long strips of folded accordion-style, creating pages about 10x23 cm. Click to view this page. They further add, that being in a garden of delight he (she) pulled some roses, but that suddenly the tree broke, and blood streamed from it; and that in consequence of this they were deprived of that place of enjoyment, and were cast into this world, because Tonacatecutli and his wife became incensed; and accordingly they came some of them to the earth, and others went to hell. He presided over these thirteen signs. Click to view this page. Click to view this page. Patecatle, who was the husband of Mayaguil (Mayahuel), the woman with four hundred breasts, who was metamorphosed into the maguei plant or vine, was properly the root which they put into the water or wine which distils from the maguei in order to make it ferment: and the unhappy man to whose industry the invention of the art of making wine by causing fermentation by means of this root was due, was afterwards worshipped as a god, and became the lord of these thirteen signs; all of which they considered fortunate, because the god of wine ruled over them. Click to view this page. By some accounts this deity is a clown and by other accounts a patron god of writing. Rios 25 (25v) Thirteenth Trecena: Yxcuina (Ixcuina). The facsimile and commentary volumes are together presented in a boxed edition with leather spine. Click to view this page. Show off your favorite photos and videos to the world, securely and privately show content to your friends and family, or blog the photos and videos you take with a cameraphone. This was the greater festival, because they celebrated on this sign the coming of the eagles. It was necessary to wear in these festivals the habit of the god. This is the figure of Quetzalcoatle, the companion of Totec. ADEVA has a well diversified program of true-to original reproductions of ancient and medieval manuscripts. Rios 21 (23v) Eleventh Trecena: Patecatle (Patecatl). Here it is apparent how allusion is made to the Scriptures; for our holy doctors say that light was created on the first day, and that it was distinct and separate from the sun. Rios 39 (32v) Twentieth Trecena: Iztapaltotec (Itztapaltotec). Click to view this page. He presided over these thirteen signs, which were all unlucky. She presided over these thirteen signs; on the seventh of which, named the First Day, they celebrated a special festival. They paint him in this manner; but whenever the Devil appears to them, they only see the feet of an eagle or a cock. They call him besides, Seven Flowers, for they say that he disposes of the principalities of the earth. Click on image to enlarge. Aug 27, 2020 - Images from the Borgia Group Codex - Fejervary Mayer from John Pohl. Click to view this page. The group shows the religious world view, the fantasy and cults of the old priestly class, and their accumulated wisdom at its highest point of development. The screenfold manuscript is painted on deerskin prepared with a gesso-like coating. John Pohl's Mesoamerica, Ancient Books : Borgia Group Codices (on FAMSI website) Author: John Pohl: Permission (Reusing this file) Reproduction of a painting that is in the public domain because of its age See more ideas about mesoamerican, aztec art, culture art. Codex Borgia. Rios 32 (30r): Tlaclitonatio (Tlachitonatiuh), or light. Yxpapalotl signifies a Knife of Butterflies (Obsidian Butterfly). While some Aztec gods had names that require interpretation to understand, Xipe Totec’s name simply meant “Our Lord the Flayed One.”2This was an apt name, as he was nearly always depicted wearing the flayed skin of a sacrificial victim. Rios 17 and 18 (21v and 22r) Ninth Trecena: Tlavizcalpantecutli (Tlahuizcalpantecutli). The Codex Borgia is the most beautiful of the remaining preserved ancient Mexican hand painted manuscripts. They dressed themselves on his festival in human skins taken from those whom they had slain in war; because they say that he was the first who clothed himself in this manner. Rios 27 (26v) Fourteenth Trecena: Thipetotec (Xipe Totec). Yztlacoliuhqui signifies The Lord of sin or of blindness, and for this reason they paint him with his eyes bandaged. Rios 23 (24v) Twelfth Trecena: Yztlacoliuhqui (Iztlacoliuhqui). Saved by Abel Batlle Caparro. The Codex Borgia is the most famous of four pre-Colombian codices that make up the “Borgia Group,” painted in the Mixteca-Puebla style by scribes who are thought to have lived in the area the modern Mexican states of Puebla and Tlaxcala. Rios 3 (14v) Second Trecena: Quetzalcoatle. Codex Becker I / II ISBN: 3-201-00756-0 For the last 35 years ADEVA, Graz/Austria has set the world-wide standards in the production of high quality facsimiles. They paint him in this manner to signify that this was a festival of great fear, which is the reason why they paint this serpent in the act of devouring a man alive. Jan 3, 2019 - Images from the Borgia Group Codex - Fejervary Mayer from John Pohl. The work of art itself is in the public domain for the following reason: He presided over these thirteen signs. On every sign dedicated to fasting the men separated themselves from their wives. Click to view this page. These are Codex Cospi, Codex Vaticanus 3773 (Codex Vaticanus B), Codex Fejérváry-Mayer, and Codex Laud. The Codex Borgia : a full-color restoration of the ancient Mexican manuscript. They manufacture so many things from this plant called the Maguei, and it is so very useful in that country, that the Devil took occasion to induce them to believe that it was a god, and to worship and offer sacrifices to it. This ceremony took place four signs after the birth of the child, if the sign was fortunate; for if this was not the case, or if any other unlucky sign ruled in this sign, they waited till it had passed by, and performed the ceremony on the next sign. Note: Patecatl is substituted for a red version of Tlazolteotl in Codex Borgia. ANCIENT BOOKS: Borgia Group Codices. They here kept a fast commemorative of the ruin of the first of the human race. Click to view this page. She was the goddess of pregnant women, and of those who knew how to work and weave, for they say that she invented those two occupations. They say that Tonacatecotle presided over the thirteen signs here marked. Naollin they say is the Sun in its tremulent action and motions, to which they attribute the production of all ordinary things. Rios 33 (28v) Seventeenth Trecena: Chalchiuhtottoli (Chalchiuhtototl) the same as Tezcatlipoca. The women were first strangled; they were afterwards thrown into some place before the image of this god or demon, where they stoned their naked bodies. Click to view this page. Chalchiutlicue is the Woman whose dress is adorned with precious stones. Retrieved 2020-03-23. The screenfold is a … CODEX LAUD. They named him The Mournful Combatant: they celebrated a great festival in his honor, which they called Tlaxipehualiztli (Tlacaxipehualiztli). The Codex Borbonicus is an Aztec codex written by Aztec priests shortly before or after the Spanish conquest of Mexico.It is named after the Palais Bourbon in France and kept at the Bibliothèque de l'Assemblée Nationale in Paris. They believed that those who were born on the first sign of Flint would be expert huntsmen and very illustrious persons, and that he who was born on the fifth sign of Air (Wind) would be an excellent jester. Tlavizcalpantecutli was the god of the morning or of the light, when the sign of the morning twilight or the crepusculum arrives, which they say was created before the sun. This painting represents the sacrifice which they performed to the Devil with human blood; and the bag of incense, and other things requisite for the sacrifice. They feign that Mayaguil was a woman with four hundred breasts, and that the gods, on account of her fruitfulness, changed her into the Maguei (Maguey plant), which is the vine of that country, from which they make wine. This man and woman represent the first pair who existed in the world: their names are Huehue. They were probably made from the inner bark of fig trees coated with lime and then written on with ink and brushes. When this figure entered in the sign of One Skull (Death), they esteemed that sign as very unlucky; and they believed that whoever was born on it would be a sorcerer, and devoted to the study of a certain sort of magic in great repute amongst them, whereby they transformed themselves into the figures of various animals. They placed on its head a sea snail, to denote that in the same way as this marine animal creeps from its integument or shell, so man comes from his mother's womb. They celebrated a great festival on the arrival of his sign, as we shall see in the sign of Four Earthquakes, which is the fourth in order here, because they feared that the world would be destroyed in that sign, as he had foretold them when he disappeared in the Red Sea; which event occurred on the same sign. Opposite to Cantico they placed Quetzalcoatl, in a golden house, arrayed in precious gems, and seated as a pontiff, with a bag of incense in his hand; intending to show that as the other had been punished for his gluttony, so he was honored for his abstinence and sacrifices. It was Tonatiuh, as they affirm, who conducted to heaven with acclamations the souls of those alone who died in war; and on this account they paint him with these arms in his hands. She was the wife of Miquitlantecotli, the god of hell: she was also the goddess of prostitutes; and she presided over these thirteen signs, which were unlucky, and accordingly they believed that those who were born in these signs would be rogues or prostitutes. Iztapaltotec properly signifies, a large stone, or the surface of the earth, or the bloody stone of the afflicted, or placed within a razor, which is the same as a sword or fear. He is also associated with gambling symbolized by the patolli board. A Mixtec deity named 4 Earthquake wears many of his attributes as well. He (She) was one of those gods who, as they affirm, were expelled from heaven; and on this account they paint him (her) surrounded with knives, and wings of butterflies. In medicine, it is now used for cancer therapy. Besides Crossing 15 (section of page 95 of the Codex Vaticanus 3773B) and CRISPR-Cas9, we detect TALEN (Transcription activator-like effector nuclease) 16 from other drawings as other genetic engineering techniques (left margin of page 34 of the Codex Borgia). Click to view this page. Click to view this page. Free for commercial use, no attribution required. We certainly ought to deplore the blindness of these people and the cunning of Satan, who in this manner has persevered in counterfeiting the Holy Scriptures; since he communicated to these poor people the knowledge of the temptation of our mother Eve, and of the inconstancy of our father Adam, under the fiction of this woman, who is turned towards her husband, as God declared to our mother Eve, "et ad virum conversio ejus", (and she shall turn towards her husband); whom they call Isnextli, who is the same as Eve, who is always weeping, with her eyes dim with ashes, with a rose in her hand emblematical of her grief, being in consequence of having gathered it. Rios 22 (24r): The Eagle and the Tiger (Jaguar). Codex Borbonicus. Suchiquecal was the wife of Tzinteutl. They considered it fortunate to be born on the first sign of Rabbit, and that those who were born on that sign would enjoy long life, and that he who was born on Five Herbs (Grass) would be a rich merchant. Hence it is apparent that the same Devil who tempted our first father Adam with the Woman, and the woman Eve with the Serpent, wished to counterfeit our first father who was the origin of our blindness and misery. Topics: precolumbian, aztec, codex, glyphs, calendar, codex borgia group, famsi, … They called this god Tonacatecotli, and by another name Citallatonalli; and they said that he was the constellation which appears by night in the sky, named Saint James' or the Milky Way. Women in a state of pregnancy offered sacrifices to her, in order not to give birth to girls; because they believed that those who were born on the first sign of the eagle would be bad, but if they bore sons on that sign they would be very brave and valiant in war, and would animate others with courage to die in battle, which was that which they desired above all other things: since we have already said that those alone who died in war went to heaven, from whence many eagles came and changed themselves into the figures of boys. Vol. Click to view this page. At the time in which this offering or purification was made, one of the old men held the child in his arms; whence it is plain, that either these people descend from the Hebrews, or that the Devil gave them these rites and ceremonies, to imitate those with which God was honored by his people. This deity presided over these thirteen signs. She presided over these thirteen signs; and when the war commenced on the sign of One Cane (Reed), they celebrated a great festival in Chululan (Cholula) to Quetzalcoatle, for they say that he was their first Papa or priest. By using this site, you agree to the use of cookies by Flickr and our partners as … They represented in this manner this god with his mouth open, "ad deglutiendum hominess". Additionally, rituals are also touched upon. Click to view this page. Main Index For Aztec Codices At FAMSI. Codex Borgia is preserved in the Apostolic library at the Vatican in Rome, Italy. This figure signifies that Quetzalcoatle was the first inventor of sacrifices of human blood, amongst the various other things which they offered to the gods; and this was the manner in which they pierced their tongues, that blood might flow from thence, and their ears and penis; till at last, as we shall presently mention, the custom of human sacrifices was introduced, when they tore out the hearts of the victims, to present them to the face of the idol which they considered the image of their wretched god. Rios 9 (16v) Fifth Trecena: Quequecoyotl (Huehuecoyotl). These measured different widths, but were of approximately the same height to form an even longer strip that was folded back and forth, accordion-like, to make “pages.” Scholars call the screenfold’s front “obverse” and its back “reverse.” Two pages, a large section, or even an entire side—obverse or reverse—can be viewed simultaneously. 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